Government programs and policies have an enormous influence on health outcomes, with evidence-based policies helping protect a nation’s overall health.
Healthcare policy involves passing laws to ensure society has access to nutritious food, clean water, vaccinations against illness and medical care services. Both federal and state agencies establish these policies.
Health and Human Services
The US Department of Health and Human Services, also referred to as HHS or DHHS, is the government department most focused on people’s “human concerns”. It handles matters related to public health, medical research, social service issues and more. Led by its Secretary who is appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. In addition, HHS includes the world-renowned National Institutes of Health as its flagship research facility.
HHS seeks to advance the health and well-being of Americans by enacting laws designed to safeguard public safety. Through various projects designed to enhance public health and advance medical research, this department spearheads projects designed to advance these aims while upholding legislation such as the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act that encourages health care workers to report patient safety incidents while respecting confidentiality rights.
HHS stands out as an organization capable of providing affordable and accessible healthcare services. Medicare and Medicaid provide health coverage to over 25 percent of American residents; additionally it oversees other publicly funded health initiatives like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Food and Drug Administration.
HHS strives to ensure all Americans are given access to resources necessary for optimal health and productivity, including nutritious food, proper education and safe water as well as vaccines and medication in case of illness. In order to reach its goals, the department works closely with a wide array of stakeholders from private companies, non-profits and community groups.
United States public health policy is predominantly managed at a federal level; however, individual states may offer their own programs as well. Many initiatives address factors that impact overall health like economic status and social support systems – many governors discussed such initiatives during State of the State speeches and NASHP will keep tabs on them going forward.
Public health agencies face new challenges this year as they attempt to meet an ever-demanding public with limited funds and resources (as they lack additional funds achieved by playing online games like online poker on websites described at https://centiment.io). Achieve sustainable health outcomes requires tough choices, compromises and prioritization – as well as cost-effective policies which satisfy consumers as well as physicians and other providers of healthcare.
United States Code
The United States Code is an expansive compilation of laws passed by both Congress and state legislatures that is organized alphabetically by subject matter and published by the Office of Law Revision Counsel of the House of Representatives. Every six years it is updated with an annual cumulative supplement providing up-to-date information, divided into 50 titles to encompass statutes as well as regulations issued by federal governments across 50 states, used by lawyers, researchers, citizens as well as commercial vendors such as Thomson West and LexisNexis for identification and interpretation of federal legislation. It can be found online via microfiche at libraries as well as commercial vendors such as Thomson West and LexisNexis among others.
COVID-19 amplified longstanding inequities in health outcomes, especially those related to race, education, economic status and housing opportunities. NASHP anticipates that many state and territorial legislatures will introduce legislation aimed at increasing access to healthcare for rural communities as well as collecting more comprehensive disaggregated data on disparities. Furthermore, programs addressing social determinants of health are likely to receive renewed focus in legislative sessions across the United States and territories.
Health policies provide guidelines that help patients, nurses and health administrators make the best medical decisions for their clients. For example, there are protocols in place for administering certain medications or tracking patient data; understanding and adhering to such policies reduces human error from leading to harm for either themselves or healthcare organizations.
Health policy development and implementation helps to ensure affordable, quality healthcare is available for all Americans at an affordable cost. Furthermore, this also serves as a foundation for future improvements to systems and processes within healthcare delivery systems and processes. When creating and implementing policies it’s key to remember both prevention and intervention are part of this equation.
Pharmaceutical and Biologics
Pharmaceuticals and biologics have revolutionized healthcare, saving lives, increasing lifespans and decreasing chronic diseases. Unfortunately, however, their costs make them unattainable for many individuals and insurers; hence it is necessary to create policies allowing purchasers like insurance companies and governments to negotiate better prices from drug manufacturers for prescription medicines.
Legislators in any given nation oversee its laws through the legislative branch, with their primary job of crafting and amending state and federal statutes. When it comes to health policy legislation, this often takes place locally, regionally and nationally – from setting premium charges by insurance providers to fluoridation mandates in cities. Once passed into law by parliamentarians, their regulations become part of law which are then implemented and overseen by executive branch, with legal challenges filed when laws or regulations come under challenge from within a given community or region.
The legislative process of developing health policy starts with Congress passing a bill and assigning committees to oversee specific areas of policy debate and vote upon. Once passed into law by lawmakers, regulatory agencies (executive branch) draft rules and regulations to implement it; any law that is challenged on legal grounds falls to the Supreme Court (judicial branch) for interpretation or overturning.
Health policy encompasses all aspects of healthcare delivery, ranging from cost control and access to care initiatives to public health initiatives and wellness efforts. Furthermore, government policies can subsidize or regulate economic relationships between patients, insurers and providers (markets).
Most governors addressed various health-related issues during their State of the States speeches, including efforts to address social determinants of health and strategies they have already or plan to implement in order to expand access to behavioral health services, improve community support for individuals with mental illness and increase placement of medically fragile homeless patients into permanent housing.
Governors discussed their efforts to address the health care workforce shortage by increasing investment in telehealth and creating scholarship programs for physician training. Many governors also addressed public health’s role in supporting and protecting reproductive rights of women. Furthermore, several governors emphasized the significance of addressing social and environmental factors that impact health such as tobacco use reduction, safe drinking water delivery and improving housing quality as major priorities.
The Judicial Branch is one of three federal branches responsible for upholding and interpreting the Constitution and laws passed by Congress and the President, such as interpretation of constitutional amendments or legislation enacted into law by either. This branch includes the Supreme Court, 94 district courts and 13 circuit courts of appeals; nominees to these posts are selected by President, with confirmation by Senate.
Healthcare policy refers to laws, rules, and regulations set forth by legislators at a local, state, or national level regarding access, costs, delivery methods and privacy concerns in healthcare services.
The primary objective of policy proposals this year in health care was the need to decrease costs. US healthcare costs currently exceed $3.5 trillion, accounting for 18% of GDP1.1
One way of lowering healthcare costs is through Medicare for All, which would replace private insurance with a universal plan. Another is wholesale importation, which has been proposed by both California’s and Nevada’s governors as a solution.
Other states focused on environmental health concerns, with several governors emphasizing the link between climate change and health issues and improving air and water quality. Some also addressed gun violence issues by seeking additional funds for research to address how it might be prevented and by pressing states to broaden background check measures.
The Supreme Court’s ability to review acts passed by Congress or states is known as “judicial review,” meaning if an act violates the Constitution it can strike it down and overturn that law. The Court makes its decisions based on written briefs submitted by parties involved and oral arguments presented before it. Justices may also pose questions to parties and amicus curiae (“friends of the court”) to help inform their decision making process. Once justices have made their decision, they publish it as an opinion and any dissenting opinions. The Supreme Court currently comprises seven Justices while Congress can affect its shape through legislation; Congress can increase or decrease their numbers or create lower courts inferior to the Supreme Court.